Jerusalem and
the ‘Israel of God’

*The Differences in the Terms
*Israel – the Name
*Who Is Israel?
*A Christian Israel
*A Combined Israel
*Prophecies of Rejection
*Symbolic Uses of the Name Israel
*Whom Does the Judged Israel Represent?
*Who Are the Judges?
*A Third Group?
*Who Are the ‘Large Crowd?’
*Will All the Faithful Be Called Israel?
*Is ‘Israel’ the Same as ‘The World?’
*The Role of Baptism
*Who Will Judge the ‘Twelve Tribes of Israel?’
*What Is ‘the World’ that Will Be Judged?
*Symbolic Jerusalem
*The Five Jerusalems?

The Differences in the Terms

Anyone who understands the symbolic meanings of these terms (Israel and Jerusalem) will have a much deeper understanding of the Bible and of God’s purposes. For, most people confuse the terms in their minds and have started believing that Israel and Jerusalem are the same and that they refer the same people, which isn’t true. For example, what does the term Jew really mean; how do the Jews differ from the Israelites; and how do the Israelites differ from Hebrews? Most people use these terms interchangeably.

You’ll also find that when John (the Apostle) spoke of the Jews, he usually meant just the people who lived in and around Jerusalem, not the people of Galilee, where Jesus did most of his preaching. If you’re interested in more information about these subjects, please see the Note in Genesis titled, ‘Hebrews, Israelites, Jews, and Semites’ and the Note in John, ‘What did John Mean by Jew?

Israel – the Name

IsraEl (which means ‘Contender with God’) was the new name that God gave the faithful patriarch Jacob after he had wrestled all night long with a messenger from God, in order to receive a blessing from him. The account is found at Genesis 32:24-28, where we read: ‘Jacob was all by himself when a man came and wrestled with him until the next morning. [Then, when the man] saw that he wasn’t going to win, he touched the upper part of Jacob’s thigh, and his thigh became numb as they wrestled. And [the man] told [Jacob]: Let me go, because the sun has come up! But [Jacob] said, I’m not going to let you go until you give me a blessing. Then [the man] asked, What’s your name? And he answered, Jacob. And [the man] told him: Your name will no longer be Jacob. Rather, IsraEl will be your name; for, you’ve grown stronger with God and mightier with men.’

Thereafter, his descendants were frequently referred to in the Bible as 'the IsraElites,' or, ‘the children of IsraEl.’

Eventually, the children of IsraEl developed into thirteen tribes (Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, ZebuLun, IsSachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, NaphTali, BenJamin, Manasseh, and Ephraim). For, although IsraEl had just twelve sons, two tribes were created from each of the sons of JoSeph, who brought his father’s family to Egypt while he was a ruler there, and who kept them from starving during a seven-year famine.

So, why do we call them ‘the twelve tribes of IsraEl’ when there were actually thirteen? Well, the thirteenth tribe was that of Levi, which was the tribe of Priests who weren’t given a land inheritance in IsraEl. Rather, they were told that their inheritance (in lieu of land) was Jehovah, and that they were to serve as His Priests.

Who Is IsraEl?

Realize that IsraEl wasn’t just a race descended from Jacob; for, from the time of the exodus down to the lifetime of Jesus and his Apostles, non-Hebrew converts were openly accepted as part of that nation. Why, King David was descended from two non-IsraElite women, the Canaanite prostitute RaHab, and the Moabite Ruth. And the practice of accepting proselytes and intermarrying has continued to this day, to the point where the Jews of the Middle East are brown skinned, those of Ethiopia are black, and many from Russia are fair skinned and blond or redheaded.

Also, if you study the Scriptures, you will find that many IsraElites and Jews settled in Iran and Iraq and have become what many call ‘Arabs’ today. Then, quite a few Jewish Christians in the First Century left Judea and settled in the nations, probably marrying among their gentile (Christian) brothers and sisters, before the destruction of Jerusalem. And in the dispersion that came following the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome, the non-Christian inhabitants of Judea (which included many intermixed non-IsraElites) were scattered throughout the whole world. And thereafter, during the Inquisition, many of these became ‘Christian’ converts and lost their IsraElite backgrounds altogether! So, quite a few of us ‘people of the nations’ are in fact (unknowingly) also from the stock of IsraEl! For more information on the results of DNA research of the Jews, see the linked article, 'The Genetic Bonds Between Kurds and Jews.'

Then, just who is IsraEl today, since there are probably none who are pure descendants of Abraham or Jacob? And if (as some claim) God is going to turn His attention to just the literal nation of IsraEl, what is the percentage of Hebrew blood that He will accept as being IsraElites (or Jewish)? Does God consider just those who have moved to Jerusalem to be the true Jews; are only those who accept one of the many sects of Judaism considered by God to be Jews; do they include just those who are circumcised; do they include just those with common Jewish names… and are they rejected if they’ve adopted the names of the peoples of the nations?

Obviously, anyone who thinks that all Jews or IsraElites will eventually be converted has never really thought everything through. For, will God force people to become what they don’t wish to become?

A Christian IsraEl

So, how will the promises of God concerning IsraEl be fulfilled? Well, realize that Christianity is just an extension of the true IsraElite worship of God. And although the first offering to become Christians was made just to the Jews (which include non-Judaic IsraElites and gentile proselytes); when the majority of them rejected the offer, God pruned them out of the tree of IsraEl and grafted in non-IsraElite converts, making them the new IsraEl of God. Paul went to great lengths to explain this. For, he wrote (at Romans 11:17, 18): ‘It was when some of the branches were broken off that you wild olives were grafted in. Thus, you became sharers of the fatness of the olive [tree’s] roots. But, don’t cheer because those branches [were removed]… for, if you find yourself cheering over that; remember that you don’t support the roots, they support you!’

So, notice that when people of the nations became Christians, they were grafted into the olive tree of IsraEl. And like people of the nations who in the past became IsraEl (such as RaHab and Ruth), Christians also become native IsraElites by adoption.

That non-IsraElites could become IsraEl, was explained to the Prophet Ezekiel by God (at Ezekiel 47:21-23), where He said concerning those who would be restored to the land, ‘You must divide this land among the tribes of IsraEl, and you must throw lots for yourselves and for the foreigners who live among you that have given birth to sons in your midst. For, they will be yours as native-born sons among the sons of IsraEl, and they will eat with you and receive an inheritance in the midst of the tribes of IsraEl. They will live among the tribe that made them converts, along with others who have been converted, and you must give them an inheritance.’

Also, notice what Paul wrote concerning the gentiles at Ephesians 2:19: ‘As the result, you are no longer strangers and aliens; you are fellow citizens among the Holy Ones and fellow members of the House of God.’ And again at Ephesians 3:6: ‘People of the nations will be fellow heirs, fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise (in the Anointed Jesus) through the good news.’

The fact is; because of their willingness to be persecuted and die for their beliefs back in the First Century, many IsraElites and Jews will actually hold prominent positions in the Kingdom of God. And as IsraEl was made up of a huge crowd of non-IsraElites who became IsraEl, starting from the time of the exodus; converts to the true worship of God today – regardless of their race – do in fact become IsraEl, which just means, ‘Those Who’ve Grown Stronger with God.’

The problem that most people have with understanding how non-IsraElites become IsraElites, is that they view Christianity as a non-Jewish religion, which it never was! For, during the seven years that started with Jesus’ first coming until the conversion of the gentiles (Cornelius and his household), the Kingdom hope was only offered to Jews and the related Samaritans. And thereafter, except for a brief period when Peter did so, only Paul and his companions preached to the non-Jews. But even then; according to all the accounts, they first started their preaching at Jewish synagogues! So, Christianity has been just an extension of the Jewish race, way of life, and religion since the beginning. And all true Christians in fact become Jews by adoption!

The fact is: Those who insist that the Jews will receive a reward different from that of their gentile brothers, are making themselves like those Jewish Christians who opposed Paul back in the First Century by insisting that the gentile converts be circumcised and follow the Old Law, making themselves de facto Jews! So, they are the same as the 'false brothers' of whom Paul spoke in Galatians Chapter Two, since they are taking Christians out of the New Sacred Agreement with Jesus and putting them back under the Old Sacred Agreement that was given through Moses.


JeruSalem, which means ‘Two-fold (heb. Ieru) Peace (heb. Shalom),’ eventually became the capital city of the land of IsraEl. It was the place that God Himself selected, and it was situated on and around two joined hills (Zion and MoriAh) in the land that was allotted to the tribe of Judah. During the time of AbraHam, this city was just known as Salem, and it’s where AbraHam met with the ancient king-priest of that city, MelchiZedek, when he gave him a tenth of all that he had captured from the kings who had carried away his nephew Lot. And Mount MoriAh was apparently where AbraHam attempted to offer his son IsaAc as a sacrifice to God. So, it was a fitting place to put God’s Temple. By the way; In modern IsraEl, the city is called YeruShaloim (Yeru-shallow-eem), which is likely closer to the proper pronunciation.

As the capital city of the entire nation, the royal palaces of the kings of IsraEl were also located in JeruSalem; and since the Temple of Jehovah was there, it was the home of many of the Levite Priests in the line of Aaron and Moses. As the result, JeruSalem became not only the city of the king, but it was the only center of the worship of Jehovah, and it was the place where the whole nation had to go in order to present their sacrifices and tithes, and to attend the festivals.

However, from the beginning, there seems to have been a division between the tribe of Judah and the other tribes, which was only resolved temporarily during the reigns of David and Solomon. Then, after the reign of Solomon, ten tribes left the rulership of the line of David and formed their own capital (which was moved a couple of times), and they soon fell away from the worship of Jehovah. At that time, the ten-tribe kingdom became known as ‘IsraEl,’ and the kingdom of the combined tribes of BenJamin and Judah became known as Judah, or in English, 'the Jews.’

A Combined IsraEl

Understand that most references to IsraEl during the time of Jesus and his Apostles no longer carried the meaning of a separate nation; since, after JeruSalem was rebuilt (with the blessings of the Persian king), people from all the tribes had returned there (although most were of the tribes of BenJamin and Judah). Also, because the Apostles recognized that God’s promises were given to all twelve tribes, they usually mentioned all twelve tribes when they were speaking about following the Law, or when they were using the term IsraEl symbolically. For, when Christians used the terms IsraEl or Jew when speaking of themselves, they were usually using it symbolically… and Bible readers often misunderstand this.

Notice, for example, what Paul wrote about this at Romans 9:6-8: ‘But God’s word didn’t fail; because, not all who came from IsraEl are really IsraEl, nor are all of AbraHam’s seed his children. For [it’s written]: That which will be called your seed will come through IsaAc. However, [IsaAc’s] fleshly children aren’t the children of God… the children of the promise are that seed.’

So as you can see, Paul was explaining that the Christian Congregation – which included many gentiles – is also IsraEl. For more information on this subject, see the Note in Romans, ‘God’s Chosen People.’

Prophecies of Rejection

But, would God ever reject the literal nation of IsraEl in favor of a spiritual nation? Yes, He said that He would at Jeremiah 31:35-37! For, there we read: ‘Thus says Jehovah (who appointed the sun to light the day, and the moon and stars to light the night; the roar of the seas and the sound of its waves; Jehovah the Almighty is His Name):
If these Laws before Me should cease to be,
Then, the race of IsraEl will no longer stand,
As a nation before Me,
Throughout the rest of their days

Jehovah says:
If the skies can be raised in their height,
And the floor of the ground can be lowered,
I can reject the race of IsraEl,
says Jehovah,
For all the things that they’ve done.’

So, with the end of the Old Sacred Agreement and its Laws, the race of IsraEl ceased to stand as a nation before God… they were ‘rejected for all the things that they’ve done.’

Symbolic Uses of the Name IsraEl

There are at least four places where the term IsraEl is used symbolically; one is found in Matthew, one in Galatians, and the other two are found in the Revelation. And it is at Galatians 6:16 that Paul first used the term ‘IsraEl of God’ to refer, not to the fleshly nation, but to the Christian Congregation.

Then at Revelation 7:4 we read: ‘And I heard how many of them had been sealed: a hundred and forty-four thousand from among every tribe of the sons of IsraEl.’

What did this mean? Well, if you read the surrounding verses there in Revelation, you’ll see that this scripture is talking about a special group of people that is chosen out of symbolic IsraEl; twelve thousand from each of the tribes. And we know that the term IsraEl is used symbolically here, because the names of the tribes listed thereafter aren’t the same as those of the original twelve tribes of IsraEl.

Notice (in verses 5-8) that the names of these symbolic twelve tribes were Judah, Reuben, Gad, Asher, NaphTali, Manasseh, Simeon, Levi, IsSachar, ZebuLun, JoSeph, and BenJamin. So, two tribal names (the Priestly tribe of Levi, which was never listed as one of the original twelve, and the tribe of JoSeph, which was represented in IsraEl by the names of his sons, Ephraim and Manasseh) were added, and two were deleted (Dan and Manasseh). And this is the clue that these groups of 12,000 each were taken from symbolic IsraEl (the Christian Congregation), not the literal nation.

Whom Does the Judged IsraEl Represent?

Then, what is the purpose of this group that is selected from among symbolic IsraEl? Well, notice that these 144,000 ‘chosen’ ones were called ‘the slaves of our God.’ And it appears as though their choosing is for the purpose of serving in heaven with Jesus, where they are to be judges, kings, and Priests over ‘the twelve tribes of IsraEl’ from among whom they had just been selected. For, this is what Jesus had said to his eleven faithful Apostles in the Promise that he made with them for ‘a Kingdom.’ The account is found at Matthew 19:28, which says: ‘I tell you the truth, in the rebirth – when the Son of Man sits down on his glorious throne – you who have followed me will sit on twelve thrones to judge the twelve tribes of IsraEl.’

So, who are the symbolic twelve tribes of IsraEl that they will judge? Well, the scripture at Revelation 7:4 gives us the clue when it says that 12,000 were each selected from among (gr. ek) these tribes. Therefore, such specially-favored ones appear to be selected from among all those who call themselves Christians and who are party to the New Sacred Agreement (for more information, see the document, 'The New Covenant').

Who Are the Judges?

Then, who comprise the 12,000 from each tribe that was spoken of at Revelation 7:4? We must go back to Matthew 19:28 (quoted above) for the clue. Because, there we read that they were ‘to judge the twelve tribes of IsraEl.’ So, starting with Jesus’ eleven faithful Apostles, certain ones were to be selected from among faithful Christians to serve as judges of those who say that they are party to a Covenant with God.

And why would Christianity need judging? Well, just as the early nation of IsraEl proved unfaithful; the majority of those who have called themselves Christians through the ages have also proven unfaithful. So, since this select group (the 144,000) will do the judging; perhaps they will all be in their positions in heaven before that judging begins.

We know that the Christian Congregation will be judged, because Peter wrote at 1 Peter 4:17: ‘The time of judgment has come, and it’s starting with the House (or IsraEl) of God.’

A Third Group?

Now, if you read the entire Seventh Chapter of Revelation, you’ll notice that there’s a third group mentioned (other than symbolic IsraEl and those who are called to be her judges). For, at Revelation 7:9, 10 we read, ‘After all this, I saw {look!} a crowd so large that no one could count them. They came from all countries, nationalities, ethnic groups, and languages; and they were standing in front of the throne and in front of the Lamb. They were all wearing white robes, they carried palm branches in their hands, and they were shouting, We owe our salvation to our God who is sitting on the throne, and to the Lamb.’

Who is this third group? Well, the answer is given at Revelation 7:14-17, where we read: ‘They are the ones who have come out of the great time of difficulty and who have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. That is why they're before the throne of The God, serving Him day and night in His Most Holy Place. He who is sitting on the throne will spread His tent over them, and they won't be hungry or thirsty anymore, nor will the sun beat down on them with blistering heat; because, the Lamb who is in the center of the throne will shepherd them. He will guide them to the springs of the waters of life, and God will wipe all the tears from their eyes.’

First, it was DaniEl, and then Jesus, who foretold the coming of the ‘great time of difficulty’ from which this large crowd would come. For, at Matthew 24:21 it is recorded that Jesus (when quoting the Prophecy of DaniEl 12) said: ‘Then there will come a great time of difficulty such as has never happened since the world’s beginning until now, nor should ever happen again.’

This ‘great time of difficulty’ was clearly fulfilled upon ancient JeruSalem when the Roman armies surrounded the city and built a fence of pointed stakes around it, creating massive starvation among its inhabitants, in the year 70-C.E. (A.D.), just before they destroyed it. However, because that entire prophecy was never completely fulfilled, we know that there must also be a similar ‘difficult time’ that will come before the Battle of Armageddon; because, modern unfaithful Christian religions appear to have been pictured by unfaithful JeruSalem in the time of Jesus. So, a modern power (similar to that of the armies of Rome) will likely attack those Christians who are declared unworthy by the heavenly group of judges, and that’s when they will see their ‘great time of difficulty.’

Who Are the ‘Large Crowd?’

So, the question remains: Whom does the ‘large crowd’ represent?

To this point, we’re unsure. The reason for this is that they appear to be a separate group of faithful individuals who aren’t a part of symbolic IsraEl, since IsraEl has already been identified, along with its judges, in the previous few verses of Revelation Chapter Seven. Also, the fact that they come from all countries, nationalities, ethnic groups, and languages (that they don’t comprise IsraEl) leads us to believe that they may not be Christians. Yet, they are described as having ‘washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb;’ so, this seems to indicate that they become baptized believers… and perhaps the fact that they are mentioned as being of mixed ethnicity (not being IsraEl) indicates that that they will be peoples who have not come under the New Sacred Agreement.

But, what about the fact that they are spoken of as standing before God and serving at his 'Most Holy Place' (gr. naos), and that they have come out of 'the great time of difficulty?' Doesn't this mean that they are Christians and that they are living in heaven? Well, as we wrote earlier; we're unsure. Realize that we are not proposing doctrine here, we are just suggesting what may be possible. What we do notice though, is that God is said to spread His Tent (or His Temporary Dwelling) over them, which does not indicate a permanent condition (as would be true if it spoke of His House or Temple). And being guided 'to the springs of the waters of life,' does not suggest immortal life in heaven.

Will All the Faithful Be Called IsraEl?

Will all the faithful eventually be called IsraEl? This is a good question; because, the name IsraEl originally implied someone who wrestled with and became stronger with God. And like Jacob, the faithful may also have wrestled with God to receive a blessing. So, it seems likely that they will also be referred to as IsraEl.

In addition, in the writings of the Prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel there seem to be references to ethnics or nations who will serve those called IsraEl after the final test at the end of the thousand years. For more information on this, see Ezekiel the Thirty-Ninth Chapter.

Is ‘IsraEl’ the Same as ‘The World?’

Unfortunately, many religions have concluded that the ‘twelve tribes of IsraEl’ whom Jesus’ anointed ones will judge are the same as those who Paul spoke of when he wrote (at 1 Corinthians 6:2), ‘Don’t you know that the Holy Ones will judge the world?’ However, this conclusion is totally illogical, since IsraEl represents those in a covenant relationship with God, while ‘the world’ seems to represent a wicked arrangement that started with Adam’s sin in Paradise.

What’s more, some of these same religions claim that the ‘twelve tribes of IsraEl’ (which left Egypt under Moses) represent Jesus’ anointed ones who will rule with him in heaven. So, notice the conflict: We have two groups that they identify as IsraEl during the ‘last days;’ one they say is ‘the anointed’, and the other they say represents the whole world. Shouldn’t we assume Bible prophecies to be more consistent than that?

Now, let’s go back and look at the twelve tribes of IsraEl as they left Egypt and see just whom they do represent and what period in time is indicated.

The Role of Baptism

Do the IsraElites who left Egypt really picture those who go to heaven? Well, Paul gave us a clue when he wrote at 1 Corinthians 10:1, 2: ‘Now, I don’t want you to miss this point, brothers; All of our ancestors were under the cloud and they all passed through the sea; so, they were all baptized into Moses (because of the cloud and the sea).’

So, according to Paul, coming through the Red Sea symbolizes baptism. And if we can assume this to be true, then the deliverance of IsraEl from Egypt doesn’t indicate just those who are taken to heaven; rather, it represents the huge decision each Christian makes when he or she leaves ‘the world’ (unrighteous ‘Egypt’ where they lived as slaves) behind and gets baptized.

Then whom did IsraEl represent as they left Egypt? Well, they obviously picture all who are baptized and who claim to be Christians, regardless of their future destiny (whether they will live as spirits or humans). And while some have concluded that only ‘the vast mixed company’ who left Egypt with IsraEl pictured those who won't live in heaven with Jesus; the Bible shows that these people of various races were actually under God’s Law and His Sacred Agreement. So, they became (and were in fact) IsraEl, since they were never again referred to as a separate people after entering the Promised Land (although the Gibeonites who joined IsraEl after they entered the Promised Land did later retain their separate status).

Now, if we can accept the concept that deliverance through the Red Sea pictures Christian baptism; then what followed must also happen. The IsraElites thereafter had to spend forty years in the desert before they could enter ‘the promised land’ and receive their ‘inheritance.’ And during this entire period, huge numbers of them proved unfaithful, so God killed them. Does this sound like a description of those who are taken to heaven?

Who Will Judge the ‘Twelve Tribes of IsraEl?’

So, while we don’t wish to be dogmatic, it appears as though the ‘twelve tribes of IsraEl’ that Jesus’ chosen ones will judge don’t represent ‘the world’ of mankind in general. But rather, they appear to represent all who are baptized and who claim to be in a covenant relationship with God.

Then, who are those that will judge this ‘IsraEl?‘ Well, notice that the Levite priests (small 'p'), though taken out of IsraEl, were not counted as IsraEl. And their job was to live among the IsraElites, serving as judges and providing spiritual leadership. However, from among them, the Priests (capital 'P') of the lines of Aaron and Moses were chosen to serve before God within His Temple. And it is interesting that these are the only ones that the Bible describes as ‘anointed.’ So, although the 'priests' will serve as the earthly judges, the 'Priests' may do the initial judging. For more information, see the linked document, ‘God’s Promise of an Inheritance,’ under the subheading, 'Priests that May Have Been Types of Heavenly Life.'

What Is ‘the World’ that Will Be Judged?

So, if the ‘twelve tribes of IsraEl’ that Jesus’ anointed followers will judge picture those in Christianity; then, what is ‘the world’ that Paul said will be judged? Well, it likely refers to their judging the entire wicked system that started with Adam’s sin in Paradise (see Romans 5:12).

Although there are two prophecies (one by Jesus and another by Paul) that speak of judging, they don’t have to be speaking of the same judgment. And while both prophecies seem to refer to the same group as doing the judging; this judgment appears to start with Christianity (the ‘house of God’) and finish with ‘the world.’ For, the judging of Christianity seems to start before Armageddon with the condemnation and destruction of ‘the Great Babylon’ (Revelation, 17, 18), and thereafter, ‘the world’ or 'system of things' is judged.

Symbolic JeruSalem

The thing that makes JeruSalem different from IsraEl, is the fact that it doesn’t represent the whole nation of IsraElites, but rather, the government and Priesthood that’s over IsraEl. And while IsraEl may represent a group of both the faithful and unfaithful, symbolic JeruSalem commonly represents righteous government.

The Five JeruSalems?

Five JeruSalems? Yes, that what we’ve counted. Notice that there is:

1. JeruSalem the earthly city.

2. A JeruSalem represented by the heavenly rule over God’s people prior to the time that Jesus was appointed King. For, notice what Paul wrote about this city at Galatians 4:26, ‘But the JeruSalem above is free and she’s our mother.’

3. A ‘holy city’ that is persecuted early into ‘the Lord’s Day.’ For, notice what Revelation 11:1, 2 tells us: ‘And they’re going to trample the Holy City under their feet for forty-two months.’
This likely represents what will happen to those who take the lead among the Christian body (IsraEl) here on the earth in ‘the last days.’

4. A future earthly JeruSalem that may be real, or just a symbol of righteous earthly government at that time. For, after the end of the thousand-year reign of Jesus, when the Opposer is released, the armies of Gog of Magog are going to attack that city. Notice what we read about this at Revelation 20:7-9: ‘Now, when the thousand years are completed, the Slanderer will be freed from his prison. Then he will go out and mislead people in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, and bring them together for a battle. And there will be as many as the sands of the seas. They will march across the earth and surround the camp of the Holy Ones and the loved city.’

5. The ‘New JeruSalem’ spoken of at Revelation 21:2, where we read: ‘I also saw the Holy City, New JeruSalem, coming down out of heaven from God. It had been prepared as a bride who is dressed for her husband.’
This appears to be the rule of a heavenly body that is chosen from among IsraEl, and who we read about at Revelation 7:4. For, this city comes from heaven. However, it doesn’t seem be the same as the ‘JeruSalem above’ that Paul spoke of at Galatians 4:26, because it is referred to as the ‘New’ JeruSalem, and it hadn’t been formed yet back in Paul’s day (when he spoke of it as ‘our mother’). Nor does it appear to be the same as the JeruSalem that is attacked by Gog of Magog; because, it comes ‘down out of heaven from God’ after Gog of Magog is destroyed.

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